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US government is 'in talks with Facebook and Google' to track coronavirus

The US government is talking to tech giants like Facebook and Google to see if users’ location data could help track and slow the spread of COVID-19.

The data would be anonymous and could allow officials to see whether groups of people are keeping enough distance from each other.

Officials wants to see if private-sector companies could compile the data in a way that would allow them to map the spread of the deadly virus.

Data collected on users’ locations would be used to track patterns and groups, rather than monitor any single individual, according to a report by the Washington Post

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A man using his mobile phone while wearing a face mask as a preventive measure against the corona virus during the pandemic walking in New York. Tech companies are working with the government on possible ways to track the virus using smartphone location data

A man using his mobile phone while wearing a face mask as a preventive measure against the corona virus during the pandemic walking in New York. Tech companies are working with the government on possible ways to track the virus using smartphone location data

‘We’re exploring ways that aggregated anonymised location information could help in the fight against COVID-19,’ said Johnny Luu from Google in a statement.

‘One example could be helping health authorities determine the impact of social distancing, similar to the way we show popular restaurant times and traffic patterns in Google Maps.

He said any partnership with the government ‘would not involve sharing data about any individual’s location, movement, or contacts.’

Jon Crowcroft, the creator of FluPhone, an app designed to track the flu in the UK, said it is possible to use anonymized data to track COVID-19.

‘The health protection agencies could use it to populate anonymized map data, which might help reduce transmission,’ Crowcroft told Wired

This would allow researchers to find out ‘how long the virus survives on a surface, what fraction of the population are asymptomatic carriers, and where to target critical medical resources.’ 

A commuter wears a mask whilst walking across a quiet London Bridge into the City of London during the morning rush hour. Smartphone apps provide data on users location and that could be used to track the spread of the virus

A commuter wears a mask whilst walking across a quiet London Bridge into the City of London during the morning rush hour. Smartphone apps provide data on users location and that could be used to track the spread of the virus

Being able to monitor trends in where smartphone users go as a group, how many people are together in one place and hot spots for large gathering could be a ‘powerful tool’ for tracking the virus, officials say.

A White House official told the Washington Post they were ‘encouraged by American technology companies looking to leverage aggregated, anonymized data to glean key insights for covid-19 modeling efforts.’

The official added those insights might ‘help public health officials, researchers, and scientists improve their understanding of the spread of Covid-19 and transmission of the disease.’

Facebook confirmed it was speaking to the US government on a range of coronavirus issues and that the government was interested in understanding people’s movements. 

In the past the social media giant has provided researchers with anonymous statistics on users’ locations. 

They say this could help officials predict the next hotspots or decide where to allocate overstretched health resources.  

Other methods of providing this data include users providing information on their own locations through an app. 

Experts from the MIT Media Lab are building an app that would let people log their movements and compare them with those of known coronavirus patients using redacted data from public health departments.

It has been built by professor Ramesh Raskar and his team. He said tech companies need to do more to help track the deadly virus.

An open letter written by a number of tech executives and doctors to Apple and Google called for a similar technology to be built into iPhone and Android devices by default.

‘If such a feature could be built before SARS-CoV-2 is ubiquitous, it could prevent many people from being exposed,’ the letter suggests. 

‘In the longer term, such infrastructure could allow future disease epidemics to be more reliably contained, and make large scale contact tracing of the sort that has worked in China and South Korea, feasible everywhere.’ 

Using location data on smartphones to track COVID-19 isn’t new. 

China published an app that lets people scan QR codes to find out if they’ve been in close contact with someone infected with the virus. 

Israel is thought to be doing something similar by using residents’ cellphone data to track the disease.

Facebook is already working on providing anonymized and aggregated data on people’s movements for researchers and nonprofits. 

It populates maps with the aid of users who have given the company permission to collect their location – harnessed via their smartphones. 

The locations are aggregated and anonymized by Facebook to calculate the likelihood people in one city or town are likely to visit another area and potentially spreading the outbreak. 

The use of smartphone data to track the spread of COVID-19 could actually do more harm than good due to the nature of the transmission of the virus.

An app or smartphone usage data may only give a very crude picture of the spread.

A phone only determines positions to between 22ft and 42ft in urban built up areas and may actually be much less precise than that.

The issue is that COVID-19 appears to spread between two people who are within just a few feet of each other.

‘It might not be that easy to get it to work properly,’ Hannah Fry, an associate professor at the Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis at University College London in the UK told Wired. 

‘It’s not as simple as ‘Have you crossed paths with someone who has the virus.’ You can sit within a few meters of someone and not be at risk. 

‘Meanwhile it looks like you can come into contact with a train seat previously occupied by someone with the virus many hours earlier and be at risk.’

A commuter wears a mask and gloves whilst walking across London Bridge into the City of London during the morning rush hour. Facebook is already working on providing anonymized and aggregated data on people's movements for researchers and nonprofits

A commuter wears a mask and gloves whilst walking across London Bridge into the City of London during the morning rush hour. Facebook is already working on providing anonymized and aggregated data on people’s movements for researchers and nonprofits

The US government says it hasn’t started actively promoting the development of tracking software. 

Fry says it is still worth trying even with the limitations. She told Wired ‘The data is there, and it could make a big positive difference if they could get it to work.’

Smartphones regularly share their location to wireless carriers and tech companies – where permission has been granted by the user. 

This is to deliver weather reports, hail rides and even help people find the location of the nearest coffee shop. 

There are wider privacy concerns, although Facebook and Google stressed any data would be anonymous and so would not identify individuals.

‘The balance between privacy and pandemic policy is a delicate one,’ Al Gidari, director of privacy at Stanford Law School’s Center for Internet and Society, tweeted. 

‘The problem here is that this is not a law school exam. Technology can save lives, but if the implementation unreasonably threatens privacy, more lives may be at risk.’ 

The Washington Post reports that the government is not seeking to collect and maintain a database on people’s whereabouts, rather just information to spot trends. 








WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT THE CORONAVIRUS?

What is the coronavirus? 

A coronavirus is a type of virus which can cause illness in animals and people. Viruses break into cells inside their host and use them to reproduce itself and disrupt the body’s normal functions. Coronaviruses are named after the Latin word ‘corona’, which means crown, because they are encased by a spiked shell which resembles a royal crown.

The coronavirus from Wuhan is one which has never been seen before this outbreak. It has been named SARS-CoV-2 by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. The name stands for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2.

Experts say the bug, which has killed around one in 50 patients since the outbreak began in December, is a ‘sister’ of the SARS illness which hit China in 2002, so has been named after it.

The disease that the virus causes has been named COVID-19, which stands for coronavirus disease 2019.

Dr Helena Maier, from the Pirbright Institute, said: ‘Coronaviruses are a family of viruses that infect a wide range of different species including humans, cattle, pigs, chickens, dogs, cats and wild animals. 

‘Until this new coronavirus was identified, there were only six different coronaviruses known to infect humans. Four of these cause a mild common cold-type illness, but since 2002 there has been the emergence of two new coronaviruses that can infect humans and result in more severe disease (Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronaviruses). 

‘Coronaviruses are known to be able to occasionally jump from one species to another and that is what happened in the case of SARS, MERS and the new coronavirus. The animal origin of the new coronavirus is not yet known.’ 

The first human cases were publicly reported from the Chinese city of Wuhan, where approximately 11million people live, after medics first started publicly reporting infections on December 31.

By January 8, 59 suspected cases had been reported and seven people were in critical condition. Tests were developed for the new virus and recorded cases started to surge.

The first person died that week and, by January 16, two were dead and 41 cases were confirmed. The next day, scientists predicted that 1,700 people had become infected, possibly up to 7,000. 

Where does the virus come from?

According to scientists, the virus almost certainly came from bats. Coronaviruses in general tend to originate in animals – the similar SARS and MERS viruses are believed to have originated in civet cats and camels, respectively.

The first cases of COVID-19 came from people visiting or working in a live animal market in Wuhan, which has since been closed down for investigation.

Although the market is officially a seafood market, other dead and living animals were being sold there, including wolf cubs, salamanders, snakes, peacocks, porcupines and camel meat. 

A study by the Wuhan Institute of Virology, published in February 2020 in the scientific journal Nature, found that the genetic make-up virus samples found in patients in China is 96 per cent identical to a coronavirus they found in bats.

However, there were not many bats at the market so scientists say it was likely there was an animal which acted as a middle-man, contracting it from a bat before then transmitting it to a human. It has not yet been confirmed what type of animal this was.

Dr Michael Skinner, a virologist at Imperial College London, was not involved with the research but said: ‘The discovery definitely places the origin of nCoV in bats in China.

‘We still do not know whether another species served as an intermediate host to amplify the virus, and possibly even to bring it to the market, nor what species that host might have been.’  

So far the fatalities are quite low. Why are health experts so worried about it? 

Experts say the international community is concerned about the virus because so little is known about it and it appears to be spreading quickly.

It is similar to SARS, which infected 8,000 people and killed nearly 800 in an outbreak in Asia in 2003, in that it is a type of coronavirus which infects humans’ lungs. It is less deadly than SARS, however, which killed around one in 10 people, compared to approximately one in 50 for COVID-19.

Another reason for concern is that nobody has any immunity to the virus because they’ve never encountered it before. This means it may be able to cause more damage than viruses we come across often, like the flu or common cold.

Speaking at a briefing in January, Oxford University professor, Dr Peter Horby, said: ‘Novel viruses can spread much faster through the population than viruses which circulate all the time because we have no immunity to them.

‘Most seasonal flu viruses have a case fatality rate of less than one in 1,000 people. Here we’re talking about a virus where we don’t understand fully the severity spectrum but it’s possible the case fatality rate could be as high as two per cent.’

If the death rate is truly two per cent, that means two out of every 100 patients who get it will die. 

‘My feeling is it’s lower,’ Dr Horby added. ‘We’re probably missing this iceberg of milder cases. But that’s the current circumstance we’re in.

‘Two per cent case fatality rate is comparable to the Spanish Flu pandemic in 1918 so it is a significant concern globally.’

How does the virus spread?

The illness can spread between people just through coughs and sneezes, making it an extremely contagious infection. And it may also spread even before someone has symptoms.

It is believed to travel in the saliva and even through water in the eyes, therefore close contact, kissing, and sharing cutlery or utensils are all risky. It can also live on surfaces, such as plastic and steel, for up to 72 hours, meaning people can catch it by touching contaminated surfaces.

Originally, people were thought to be catching it from a live animal market in Wuhan city. But cases soon began to emerge in people who had never been there, which forced medics to realise it was spreading from person to person. 

What does the virus do to you? What are the symptoms?

Once someone has caught the COVID-19 virus it may take between two and 14 days, or even longer, for them to show any symptoms – but they may still be contagious during this time.

If and when they do become ill, typical signs include a runny nose, a cough, sore throat and a fever (high temperature). The vast majority of patients will recover from these without any issues, and many will need no medical help at all.

In a small group of patients, who seem mainly to be the elderly or those with long-term illnesses, it can lead to pneumonia. Pneumonia is an infection in which the insides of the lungs swell up and fill with fluid. It makes it increasingly difficult to breathe and, if left untreated, can be fatal and suffocate people.

Figures are showing that young children do not seem to be particularly badly affected by the virus, which they say is peculiar considering their susceptibility to flu, but it is not clear why. 

What have genetic tests revealed about the virus? 

Scientists in China have recorded the genetic sequences of around 19 strains of the virus and released them to experts working around the world. 

This allows others to study them, develop tests and potentially look into treating the illness they cause.   

Examinations have revealed the coronavirus did not change much – changing is known as mutating – much during the early stages of its spread.

However, the director-general of China’s Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Gao Fu, said the virus was mutating and adapting as it spread through people.

This means efforts to study the virus and to potentially control it may be made extra difficult because the virus might look different every time scientists analyse it.   

More study may be able to reveal whether the virus first infected a small number of people then change and spread from them, or whether there were various versions of the virus coming from animals which have developed separately.

How dangerous is the virus?  

The virus has a death rate of around two per cent. This is a similar death rate to the Spanish Flu outbreak which, in 1918, went on to kill around 50million people.

Experts have been conflicted since the beginning of the outbreak about whether the true number of people who are infected is significantly higher than the official numbers of recorded cases. Some people are expected to have such mild symptoms that they never even realise they are ill unless they’re tested, so only the more serious cases get discovered, making the death toll seem higher than it really is.

However, an investigation into government surveillance in China said it had found no reason to believe this was true.

Dr Bruce Aylward, a World Health Organization official who went on a mission to China, said there was no evidence that figures were only showing the tip of the iceberg, and said recording appeared to be accurate, Stat News reported.

Can the virus be cured? 

The COVID-19 virus cannot be cured and it is proving difficult to contain.

Antibiotics do not work against viruses, so they are out of the question. Antiviral drugs can work, but the process of understanding a virus then developing and producing drugs to treat it would take years and huge amounts of money.

No vaccine exists for the coronavirus yet and it’s not likely one will be developed in time to be of any use in this outbreak, for similar reasons to the above.

The National Institutes of Health in the US, and Baylor University in Waco, Texas, say they are working on a vaccine based on what they know about coronaviruses in general, using information from the SARS outbreak. But this may take a year or more to develop, according to Pharmaceutical Technology.

Currently, governments and health authorities are working to contain the virus and to care for patients who are sick and stop them infecting other people.

People who catch the illness are being quarantined in hospitals, where their symptoms can be treated and they will be away from the uninfected public.

And airports around the world are putting in place screening measures such as having doctors on-site, taking people’s temperatures to check for fevers and using thermal screening to spot those who might be ill (infection causes a raised temperature).

However, it can take weeks for symptoms to appear, so there is only a small likelihood that patients will be spotted up in an airport.

Is this outbreak an epidemic or a pandemic?   

The outbreak was declared a pandemic on March 11. A pandemic is defined by the World Health Organization as the ‘worldwide spread of a new disease’. 

Previously, the UN agency said most cases outside of Hubei had been ‘spillover’ from the epicentre, so the disease wasn’t actually spreading actively around the world.

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Written by Angle News

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