Aceh is the only province in Indonesia, the world’s most populous Muslim-majority country, which implements Islamic law, or Sharia.
The province of Banda Aceh began implementing Sharia law after being granted autonomy in 2001 – an attempt by the government in Jakarta to quell a long-running separatist insurgency.
Islamic laws have been strengthened since Aceh struck a peace deal with Jakarta in 2005.
People are flogged for a range of offences including gambling, drinking alcohol, gay sex or any sexual relationship outside marriage.
A man is whipped in public by a member of the Sharia police after being charged with gambling in Banda Aceh, Aceh province, on October 21, 2019
More than 90 per cent of the 255 million people who live in Indonesia describe themselves as Muslim, but the vast majority practice a moderate form of the faith.
The brutal and public beatings have become more prevalent in recent years with a number of reported incidents of those being punished collapsing in pain on stage.
Back in September 2014, Aceh approved an anti-homosexuality law that can punish anyone caught having gay sex with 100 lashes.
After a three-decade-old separatist movement, a peace agreement signed in 2005 granted special autonomy to Aceh, at the northern tip of Sumatra, on condition that it remained part of the sprawling archipelago.
As part of that deal, Aceh won the right to be the only Indonesian province to use Islamic sharia law as its legal code.
An Acehnese woman was also lashed as part of the public caning on January 19, 2018 outside a mosque after prayers had finished
Anybody caught engaging in consensual gay sex is punished with 100 lashes, 100 months in jail or a fine of 1,000 grams of gold.
The law also set out punishment for sex crimes, unmarried people engaging in displays of affection, people caught found guilty of adultery and underage sex.
Religious police in Aceh have been known to target Muslim women without head scarves or those wearing tight clothes, and people drinking alcohol or gambling.
Over the past decade, the central government has devolved more power to regional authorities to increase autonomy and speed up development.
Engaging in homosexual acts is not a crime under Indonesia’s national criminal code but remains taboo in many conservative parts of the country with the world’s largest Muslim population.
The trend appeared to be slowing down after a string of worrying incidents at the turn of the new year, but the new pictures reveal the practice still looms large in Indonesia.
Men and women have collapsed in pain due to the severity of their injuries and people can be caned for something as innocent as standing too close to a partner in public or being seen alone with someone they are not married to.
An Islamic enforcer holds the rattan stick against the back of Jono Simbolon, an Indonesian Christian, who was whipped 36 times for selling alcohol in the province
In the past two years or so, MailOnline has reported on the rising trend of public lashings carried out in Aceh, Indonesia:
March 1, 2016: Woman whipped 50 times for spending time alone with a man at the age of 19.
March 24, 2016: Young woman carried from the stage on a stretcher after being lashed for sex outside marriage.
August 1, 2016: Another woman is lashed for going on a date in Aceh.
August 15, 2016: Elderly man caned for breaking Sharia law.
September 11, 2016: Man and a woman lashed for having an affair and among the gathered crowd is the mayor of Banda Aceh.
October 17, 2016: Muslim woman screams out in pain on stage after being lashed 23 times for standing too close to her boyfriend.
October 31, 2016: A woman, 20, caned in public for getting too close to a man she wasn’t married to.
November 28, 2016: Man and a woman lashed 100 times each for adultery.
February 2, 2017: Enforcer lands 26 beatings across the back of a woman for having sex outside of wedlock.
February 10, 2017: Woman collapses in pain on stage as she is being caned.
February 27, 2017: Man collapses on stage as he is being whipped for having sex outside of marriage.
August 25, 2017: Ten Indonesians sentenced to up to 100 lashes of the whip for adultery.
September 12, 2017: Woman hospitalised after 100 lashes for being with a man who wasn’t her husband.
November 17, 2017: Woman is caned for adultery.
January, 2018: Indonesian Christian man is publicly flogged 36 times for selling alcohol.
February, 2018: Man and woman, both also Christian, flogged six and seven times respectively for playing a children’s entertainment game.
July 13, 2018: Gay couple flogged for having sex and woman caned for selling alcohol.
September 20, 2018: Woman caned in front of large crowds for pre-marital sex
October 29, 2018: Couple caned in public for being in ‘close proximity’ to her boyfriend.
March 20, 2019: Five couples caned after being caught cuddling, holding hands or having sex
April 15, 2019: Indonesian woman caned for having sex outside of marriage.
July 31, 2019: Three caned 100 times for having pre-marital sex.
September 19, 2019: Indonesian woman collapses in pain as she is flogged for ‘showing affection in public’. She was one six who were given at least 20 lashes each for the ‘offense’.